A three-dimensional (3-D) video system based on integral photography is proposed. In this system, real erect images of an object are formed by a gradient-index (GRIN) lens array as elemental images and are directly captured by a television camera. A large-aperture convex lens is introduced in front of the GRIN lens array to control the depth range of the reproduced image. The video signal of a group of elemental images is transmitted to a display device that combines a liquid crystal panel and an array of convex microlenses, producing a color 3-D image in real time. As a result, full-color and autostereoscopic 3-D images with full parallax can be observed. We confirmed the possibility of a 3-D television system. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.