The aberration introduced by the primary optical element of a lightweight large aperture telescope can be corrected with a diffractive optical element called the liquid crystal spatial light modulator. Such aberration is usually very large, which makes the design and modeling of such a system difficult. A method to analyze the system is introduced, and the performance limitation of the system is studied through extensive modeling. An experimental system is demonstrated to validate the analysis. The connection between the modeling data and the experimental data is given.