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Image Processing

Denoising of continuous-wave time-of-flight depth images using confidence measures

[+] Author Affiliations
Mario Frank

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich,Department of Computer Science, Haldeneggsteig 4, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland

Matthias Plaue

Technische Universität Berlin,Department of Mathematics, Strasse des 17 Juni 136, Berlin, 10623, Germany

Fred A. Hamprecht

University of Heidelberg ,Heidelberg Collaboratory for Image Processing, Speyerer Strasse 4, Heidelberg, 69115, Germany

Opt. Eng. 48(7), 077003 (July 08, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3159869
History: Received October 28, 2008; Revised April 25, 2009; Accepted May 18, 2009; Published July 08, 2009
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Time-of-flight range sensors with on-chip continuous-wave correlation of radio frequency–modulated signals are increasingly popular. They simultaneously deliver depth maps and intensity images with noise and systematic errors that are unique for this particular kind of data. Based on recent theoretical findings on the dominating noise processes, we propose specific variants of normalized convolution and median filtering, both adaptive and nonadaptive, to the denoising of the range images. We examine the proposed filters on real-world depth maps with varying reflectivity, structure, overexposure, and illumination. The best results are obtained by adaptive filters that locally adjust the level of smoothing using the estimated modulation amplitude as a measure of confidence.

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© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Mario Frank ; Matthias Plaue and Fred A. Hamprecht
"Denoising of continuous-wave time-of-flight depth images using confidence measures", Opt. Eng. 48(7), 077003 (July 08, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3159869


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