We review the history and current status of ion exchanged glass waveguide technology. The background of ion exchange in glass and key developments in the first years of research are briefly described. An overview of fabrication, characterization and modeling of waveguides is given and the most important waveguide devices and their applications are discussed. Ion exchanged waveguide technology has served as an available platform for studies of general waveguide properties, integrated optics structures and devices, as well as applications. It is also a commercial fabrication technology for both passive and active wave-guide components.