Traditionally, most camera calibrations rely on a planar target with well-known marks. However, the localization error of the marks in the image is a source of inaccuracy. We propose the use of high-resolution digital displays as active calibration targets to obtain more accurate calibration results for all types of cameras. The display shows a series of coded patterns to generate correspondences between world points and image points. This has several advantages. No special calibration hardware is necessary because suitable displays are practically ubiquitious. The method is fully automatic, and no identification of marks is necessary. For a coding scheme based on phase shifting, the localization accuracy is approximately independent of the camera's focus settings. Most importantly, higher accuracy can be achieved compared to passive targets, such as printed checkerboards. A rigorous evaluation is performed to substantiate this claim. Our active target method is compared to standard calibrations using a checkerboard target. We perform camera, calibrations with different combinations of displays, cameras, and lenses, as well as with simulated images and find markedly lower reprojection errors when using active targets. For example, in a stereo reconstruction task, the accuracy of a system calibrated with an active target is five times better.