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Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Camera calibration: active versus passive targets

[+] Author Affiliations
Christoph Schmalz

Siemens AG, CT T HW2, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, Munich, 81739 Germany and University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Pattern Recognition Lab, Martensstrasse 3, Erlangen, Bavaria 91058 Germany

Frank Forster

Siemens AG, CT T HW2, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, Munich, 81739 Germany

Elli Angelopoulou

University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Pattern Recognition Lab, Martensstrasse 3, Erlangen, Bavaria 91058 Germany

Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113601 (November 04, 2011). doi:10.1117/1.3643726
History: Received June 03, 2011; Accepted September 07, 2011; Revised July 14, 2011; Published November 04, 2011; Online November 04, 2011
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Traditionally, most camera calibrations rely on a planar target with well-known marks. However, the localization error of the marks in the image is a source of inaccuracy. We propose the use of high-resolution digital displays as active calibration targets to obtain more accurate calibration results for all types of cameras. The display shows a series of coded patterns to generate correspondences between world points and image points. This has several advantages. No special calibration hardware is necessary because suitable displays are practically ubiquitious. The method is fully automatic, and no identification of marks is necessary. For a coding scheme based on phase shifting, the localization accuracy is approximately independent of the camera's focus settings. Most importantly, higher accuracy can be achieved compared to passive targets, such as printed checkerboards. A rigorous evaluation is performed to substantiate this claim. Our active target method is compared to standard calibrations using a checkerboard target. We perform camera, calibrations with different combinations of displays, cameras, and lenses, as well as with simulated images and find markedly lower reprojection errors when using active targets. For example, in a stereo reconstruction task, the accuracy of a system calibrated with an active target is five times better.

Figures in this Article
© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Topics

Calibration ; Cameras

Citation

Christoph Schmalz ; Frank Forster and Elli Angelopoulou
"Camera calibration: active versus passive targets", Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113601 (November 04, 2011). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3643726


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