Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications

All-optical broadcast technology based on aluminum-doped highly nonlinear fiber

[+] Author Affiliations
Lijuan Li

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Jinlong Yu

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Ju Wang

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Wenrui Wang

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Shi Jia

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Qiong Wu

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Lixia Dou

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Biao Huang

Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory, Tianjin 300072, China

Opt. Eng. 53(11), 116107 (Nov 11, 2014). doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.11.116107
History: Received July 16, 2014; Revised October 13, 2014; Accepted October 14, 2014
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Abstract.  Making use of the four-wave mixing, a realization of all-optical 1×6 broadcast technology based on aluminum-doped highly nonlinear fiber (AL-HNLF) is performed. In the system, a set of experiments at channel intervals of 50, 100, and 200 GHz are conducted, and clear eye diagrams as well as low error performance are obtained with an input optical signal of a continuous wave and a 10-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying signal, which mostly benefits from the AL-HNLF used in this system. In detail, resulting from the high stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of AL-HNLF, more power can be launched into the fiber. Additionally, similar performances of different channel spaces demonstrate the adjustability for this technology. With these distinguishing features, this technology might satisfy the basic expectation of utility.

Figures in this Article

Since optical fibers possess advantages such as transmission bandwidth, low transmission loss, anti-interference ability, and other characteristics, optical communication1,2 technology has gained in popularity in the communications infrastructure. Optic-electric-optic (O/E/O) conversion is a result of its development. However, this existing (O/E/O) conversion is at the expense of a complex structure, high cost, and the highest conversion efficiency is limited to an “electronic bottleneck.” Therefore, all-optical communication would be a more attractive strategy for communication modes. To be exact, the method of broadcast whose structure is simple as well as giving an advantage in terms of wavelength multiplexing tends to be more popular. 3,4

The dominant implementations of all-optical broadcast are as follows: cross-gain modulation,510 cross-phase modulation,1113 and four-wave mixing (FWM) for semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)14 and FWM for highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF).15 Since FWM has the capability of signal processing transparently in data format16 and can be used in both phase and intensity modulations, it attracts people’s interest. Furthermore, compared with FWM for SOA, FWM for HNLF has a fast response, flat broadband, and low noise. However, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)17,18 limits the amount of power that can be launched into a fiber and the maximum nonlinearity that can be achieved from HNLF as well. Recently, a novel type of HNLF called aluminum-doped HNFL (AL-HNLF) has been of note for its SBS threshold, which is much higher than that of a conventional HNLF.19 With a high SBS threshold, a more efficient nonlinear process can be obtained without SBS suppression. Interestingly, the experiments using AL-HNLF do result in a high performance. The bit error rates (BERs) of most data signals reach 109, which indicates most signals are obtained with error-free performance. The BERs for the worst signals reach 103, but their performance can still be improved by error correction.

In this paper, three similar experiments with channel intervals of 50, 100, and 200 GHz are conducted based on AL-HNLF and the results demonstrate a good performance of the broadcast technology based on AL-HNLF. Thus, it turns out to be adjustable and flexible for this technology in practical applications.

A 10-Gb/s return-to-zero signal (at the frequency of fs) with a pump light (at the frequency of fcw) is injected into the HNLF. As a result of the nonlinear effect in HNLF, two new signals that carry the broadcast information are generated and their frequencies are f1 and f2, respectively. The frequency relationships are given by Display Formula

f1=2fsfcw,(1)
Display Formula
f2=2fcwfs.(2)

When the power of the two new signals is high enough to be a pump, another two new signals are produced at the frequencies of Display Formula

f3=2f1f2,(3)
Display Formula
f4=2f2f1.(4)

Similarly, as long as the new signals meet the phase match condition and have enough power, higher-order signals will be generated. In other words, the information is copied in different wavelengths. Let c denote the velocity of the light in a vacuum. The FWM process in terms of wavelength could be derived by substituting f=(c/λ) into Eqs. (1)–(4). Let us take Eq. (1) for example. The corresponding wavelength relationship is given by Display Formula

1λ1=2λs1λcw,(5)
Display Formula
λsλ1λ1λs=λcwλsλcwλs.(6)

In our experiment, the slight wavelength differences among λcw, λs, λ1 result in the approximate equation (λ1/λcw)1. Hence, Eq. (6) becomes Display Formula

λ12λsλcw.(7)

The relationship in Eq. (7) works for Eqs. (2)–(4) and also works for the higher-order signals that are generated in the FWM process. In our experiments, we apply the approximate equations into the whole data analysis.

As shown in Fig. 1, the system components are the laser diode (LD), polarization controller (PC), intensity modulator (IM), erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), optical band-pass filter (OBF), 3-dB optical coupler (OC), AL-HNLF [length: 130 m, nonlinear coefficient: 7.4W1km1, SBS threshold for 130 m: 1000 mW, attenuation: 15dB/km, dispersion slope: 0.011ps/(nm2km), effective area: 13.5μm2], tunable band-pass filter (TBF), oscilloscope (OSC), optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), and BER tester. LD1 generates a continuous wave (CW) at a wavelength of 1556 nm (λs), modulated by a 10-Gb/s pseudorandom bit sequence (231-1) electrical data signal. LD2 produces another CW (at the wavelength of λcw); for any CW, no additional SBS suppression stages are used in this system. We adjust the PC if necessary before they are coupled into the OC. At the input of EDFA, the average power is 1.1 dBm, and the coupled signal is amplified up to 34 dBm after the EDFA. Then the amplified signal passes through the 3-nm OBF to block amplified spontaneous emission noise, and is finally launched into AL-HNLF with an average input power of 33 dBm. Different wavelengths are filtered through the TBF, which are evaluated in the OSA. The corresponding eye diagrams are shown in the OSC. Meanwhile, a BER tester is applied to analyze the performances of broadcast signals.

Graphic Jump LocationF1 :

Experimental system for aluminum-doped highly nonlinear fiber (AL-HNLF) based on broadcast of a 10-Gb/s return-to-zero signal.

The performances for the configurations of a 50-GHz channel interval and 1556.4-nm wavelength of λcw generated by LD2 are described as follows.

Figure 2 depicts the optical spectra at the input and output of the AL-HNLF. As shown in Fig. 2(b), six new signals are detected. The wavelengths are 1555.6, 1556.8, 1555.2, 1557.2, 1554.8, and 1557.6 nm, which are identical to the analysis above. Note that due to the device limit, before being fed into the AL-HNLF, the undesired frequency component could not be completely filtered out. Hence, as shown in Fig. 2(a), two remaining frequency components are found at λ1 and λ2, which are caused by the nonlinear process in the EDFA.

Graphic Jump LocationF2 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 50 GHz.

Figures 3 and 4 show the optical spectra and eye diagrams at different wavelengths of the new generated signals. With a decrease of power density from λ1 to λ6, the performance of the broadcast signals are deteriorated, especially at λ5 (1554.8 nm) and λ6 (1557.6 nm). Furthermore, the “0” level performs better than the “1” level. In brief, the clear eye diagrams from λ1 to λ4 demonstrate a good performance for the broadcast signals.

Graphic Jump LocationF3 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 50 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF4 :

Eye diagrams 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 50 GHz: (a) at 1555.6 nm (λ1), (b) at 1556.8 nm (λ2), (c) at 1555.2 nm (λ3), (d) at 1557.2 nm (λ4), (e) 1554.8 nm (λ5), and (f) 1557.6 nm (λ6).

The BERs of broadcast signals are shown in Fig. 5. Broadcast signals at λ1 (1555.6 nm), λ2 (1556.8 nm), λ3 (1555.2 nm), and λ4 (1557.2 nm) run error free with low power, while data signals at λ5 (1554.8 nm) and λ6 (1557.6 nm) require a relatively high power to offer an error-free (109) approximation. However, an error floor (103) exists for λ5 (1554.8 nm) and λ6 (1557.6 nm), which indicates that the performance of λ5 (1554.8 nm) and λ6 (1557.6 nm) could be improved with an error-correcting code stage.

Graphic Jump LocationF5 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 50 GHz).

The performances for the configurations of 100-GHz channel interval and 1556.8-nm wavelength of λcw generated by LD2 are described as follows.

Figure 6 represents the optical spectra at the input and output of the AL-HNLF. As shown in Fig. 6(b), six new signals are detected and their wavelengths are 1553.6, 1554.4, 1555.2, 1557.6, 1558.4, and 1559.2 nm. Figures 7 and 8 show the optical spectra and eye diagrams at different wavelengths for the new generated signals. The analysis is similar to 50 GHz. The BERs of the broadcast signals are shown in Fig. 9. The case is similar to 50 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF6 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 100 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF7 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 100 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF8 :

Eye diagrams of a 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 100 GHz: (a) at 1555.2 nm (λ1), (b) 1557.6 nm (λ2), (c) 1554.4 nm (λ3), (d) 1558.4 nm (λ4), (e) 1553.6 nm (λ5), and (f) 1559.2 nm (λ6).

Graphic Jump LocationF9 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 100 GHz).

The performances for the configurations of a 200-GHz channel interval and 1557.6-nm wavelength of λcw generated by LD2 are described as follows.

Figure 10 describes the optical spectra at the input and output of the AL-HNLF. As shown in Fig. 10(b), six new signals are detected and the wavelengths are 1554.4, 1559.2, 1552.8, 1560.8, 1551.2, and 1562.4 nm. Figures 11 and 12 depict the optical spectra and eye diagrams at different wavelengths for the new generated signals. The analysis is similar to 50 GHz. The BERs of broadcast signals are shown in Fig. 13. The case is similar to 50 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF10 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 200 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF11 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 200 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF12 :

Eye diagrams of a 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 200 GHz: (a) at 1554.4 nm (λ1), (b) at 1559.2 nm (λ2), (c) at 1552.8 nm (λ3), (d) at 1560.8 nm (λ4), (e) at 1551.2 nm (λ5), and (f) at 1562.4 nm (λ6).

Graphic Jump LocationF13 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 200 GHz).

In this paper, three different channel intervals of 50, 100, and 200 GHz broadcast experiments have been implemented, respectively. The clear eye diagrams as well as the low error performance demonstrate the broadcast technology based on AL-HNLF without any SBS suppression stage. Although data signals at λ1 and λ6 are not as good as the others, they can still be improved by reducing coupling losses and losses in the AL-HNLF or increasing the magnification of the EDFA. Additionally, though these experiments are conducted at 10Gb/s and since FWM possesses the transparent characteristics of fast response and signal processing in data format, similar results can be extracted at other rates. Consequently, these three experiments show that the wavelength is tunable, which indicates a strong application for broadcast technology.

The authors would like to thank Professor Enze Yang and Professor Jinlong Yu at the School of Electrical and Information Engineering in Tianjin University and thank Ju Wang for the support in the experiments.

Huang  Q., Zhong  W.-D., “Wavelength-routed optical multicast packet switch with improved performance,” J. Lightwave Technol.. 27, (24 ), 5657 –5664 (2009). 0733-8724 CrossRef
Huang  Q., Zhong  W.-D., “An optical wavelength-routed multicast packet switch based on multitimeslot multiwavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 20, (18 ), 1518 –1520 (2008). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Ahlawat  M. et al., “Tunable single-to-dual channel wavelength conversion in an ultra-wideband SC-PPLN,” Opt. Express. 21, (23 ), 28809 –28816 (2013). 1094-4087 CrossRef
Liu  L. et al., “Experimental demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON with PPM-encoded downstream signals,” Chin. Opt. Lett.. 10, , 070608  (2012). 1671-7694 CrossRef
Wu  C. L., Su  S. P., Lin  G. R., “All-optical data inverter based on free-carrier absorption induced cross-gain modulation in Si quantum dot doped SiOx waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 20, (4 ), 8200909  (2014). 1077-260X 
Jin  X., Keating  T., Chuang  S. L., “Theory and experiment of high-speed cross-gain modulation in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 36, (12 ), 1485 –1493 (2000). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Contestabile  G. et al., “Cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot SOA at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 46, (12 ), 1696 –1703 (2010). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Meuer  C. et al., “Cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing for wavelength conversion in undoped and p-doped 1.3-μm quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Photonics. 2, (2 ), 141 –151 (2010). 1943-0655 CrossRef
Usami  M. et al., “Experimental analysis of cross gain modulation and cross phase modulation in SOA with assist light injection,” in  All-Optical Networking: Existing and Emerging Architecture and Applications/Dynamic Enablers of Next-Generation Optical Communications Systems/Fast Optical Processing in Optical Transmission/VCSEL , pp. TuK1-21 –TuK1–22 (2002).
Kapsalis  A. et al., “Tunable wavelength conversion using cross-gain modulation in a vertically coupled microring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 21, (21 ), 1618 –1620 (2009). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Marcuse  D., Chraplyvy  A. R., Tkach  R. W., “Dependence of cross-phase modulation on channel number in fiber WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.. 12, (5 ), 885 –890 (1994). 0733-8724 CrossRef
Yang  J. Y. et al., “All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals utilizing cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 20, (19 ), 1642 –1644 (2008). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Matsumoto  A. et al., “Operational design on high-speed semiconductor optical amplifier with assist light for application to wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 42, (3 ), 313 –323 (2006). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Contestabile  G., Presi  M., Ciaramella  E., “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 16, , 1775  (2004). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Hao  Q., Zeng  H., “Cascaded four-wave mixing in nonlinear Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 20, (5 ), 1 –5 (2014). 1077-260X CrossRef
Geraghty  D. F. et al., “Wavelength conversion for WDM communication systems using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 3, (5 ), 1146 –1155 (1997). 1077-260X CrossRef
Su  R. et al., “Proposal of interaction length for stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of nanosecond laser in optical fiber.” Opt. Laser Technol.. 57, , 1 –4 (2014). 0030-3992 CrossRef
Su  R. et al., “Numerical analysis on impact of temporal characteristics on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold for nanosecond laser in an optical fiber,” Opt. Commun.. 316, , 86 –90 (2014). 0030-4018 CrossRef
Nakanishi  T. et al., “Al2O3-SiO2 core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB,” in  32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2006 , Th4.1.2 (2006).

Lijuan Li is a graduate student at Tianjin University. She received her BS degree in communication engineering from Tianjin University in 2012. Her current research interests include optical application and sensors.

Jinlong Yu received his MS and PhD degrees from Tianjin University, China, in 1994 and 1997, respectively. In 1997, he joined Tianjin University. He became a full professor and group leader in the Optical Fiber Communication Laboratory of Tianjin University. He researches high-speed optical signal processing and functional elements for radio over fiber and RoF applications.

Ju Wang received her BS and MS degrees from Tianjin University in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and her PhD degree from Tianjin University in 2013. Her doctoral work principally concerned optical signal processing, especially all-optical regeneration in highly nonlinear fiber. In 2012, she joined the High-Speed Optical Communications Group at the Technical University of Denmark as a visiting PhD student. Since September 2012, she has been working with the Optical Fiber Communication Laboratory of Tianjin University. Her research interests include all-optical signal processing and optoelectrical oscillators.

Wenrui Wang is an associate professor at Tianjin University and his research interests include optical fiber communication and photonic microwaves.

Shi Jia is a PhD student at Tianjin University.

Qiong Wu is a graduate student at Tianjin University whose current research interests include optical application and sensors.

Lixia Dou is a graduate student at Tianjin University whose current research interests include optical application and sensors.

Biao Huang is a graduate student at Tianjin University whose current research interests include optical application and sensors.

© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

Citation

Lijuan Li ; Jinlong Yu ; Ju Wang ; Wenrui Wang ; Shi Jia, et al.
"All-optical broadcast technology based on aluminum-doped highly nonlinear fiber", Opt. Eng. 53(11), 116107 (Nov 11, 2014). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.11.116107


Figures

Graphic Jump LocationF1 :

Experimental system for aluminum-doped highly nonlinear fiber (AL-HNLF) based on broadcast of a 10-Gb/s return-to-zero signal.

Graphic Jump LocationF2 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 50 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF3 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 50 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF4 :

Eye diagrams 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 50 GHz: (a) at 1555.6 nm (λ1), (b) at 1556.8 nm (λ2), (c) at 1555.2 nm (λ3), (d) at 1557.2 nm (λ4), (e) 1554.8 nm (λ5), and (f) 1557.6 nm (λ6).

Graphic Jump LocationF5 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 50 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF6 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 100 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF7 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 100 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF8 :

Eye diagrams of a 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 100 GHz: (a) at 1555.2 nm (λ1), (b) 1557.6 nm (λ2), (c) 1554.4 nm (λ3), (d) 1558.4 nm (λ4), (e) 1553.6 nm (λ5), and (f) 1559.2 nm (λ6).

Graphic Jump LocationF9 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 100 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF10 :

Optical spectra at the (a) input and (b) output of the AL-HNLF with a channel interval of 200 GHz.

Graphic Jump LocationF11 :

Optical spectra of the broadcast signals after the filtering subsystem (channel space: 200 GHz).

Graphic Jump LocationF12 :

Eye diagrams of a 1×6 broadcast at different wavelengths with channel interval of 200 GHz: (a) at 1554.4 nm (λ1), (b) at 1559.2 nm (λ2), (c) at 1552.8 nm (λ3), (d) at 1560.8 nm (λ4), (e) at 1551.2 nm (λ5), and (f) at 1562.4 nm (λ6).

Graphic Jump LocationF13 :

BER curves of the six broadcast signals (channel space: 200 GHz).

Tables

References

Huang  Q., Zhong  W.-D., “Wavelength-routed optical multicast packet switch with improved performance,” J. Lightwave Technol.. 27, (24 ), 5657 –5664 (2009). 0733-8724 CrossRef
Huang  Q., Zhong  W.-D., “An optical wavelength-routed multicast packet switch based on multitimeslot multiwavelength conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 20, (18 ), 1518 –1520 (2008). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Ahlawat  M. et al., “Tunable single-to-dual channel wavelength conversion in an ultra-wideband SC-PPLN,” Opt. Express. 21, (23 ), 28809 –28816 (2013). 1094-4087 CrossRef
Liu  L. et al., “Experimental demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON with PPM-encoded downstream signals,” Chin. Opt. Lett.. 10, , 070608  (2012). 1671-7694 CrossRef
Wu  C. L., Su  S. P., Lin  G. R., “All-optical data inverter based on free-carrier absorption induced cross-gain modulation in Si quantum dot doped SiOx waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 20, (4 ), 8200909  (2014). 1077-260X 
Jin  X., Keating  T., Chuang  S. L., “Theory and experiment of high-speed cross-gain modulation in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 36, (12 ), 1485 –1493 (2000). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Contestabile  G. et al., “Cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot SOA at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 46, (12 ), 1696 –1703 (2010). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Meuer  C. et al., “Cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing for wavelength conversion in undoped and p-doped 1.3-μm quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE J. Photonics. 2, (2 ), 141 –151 (2010). 1943-0655 CrossRef
Usami  M. et al., “Experimental analysis of cross gain modulation and cross phase modulation in SOA with assist light injection,” in  All-Optical Networking: Existing and Emerging Architecture and Applications/Dynamic Enablers of Next-Generation Optical Communications Systems/Fast Optical Processing in Optical Transmission/VCSEL , pp. TuK1-21 –TuK1–22 (2002).
Kapsalis  A. et al., “Tunable wavelength conversion using cross-gain modulation in a vertically coupled microring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 21, (21 ), 1618 –1620 (2009). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Marcuse  D., Chraplyvy  A. R., Tkach  R. W., “Dependence of cross-phase modulation on channel number in fiber WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.. 12, (5 ), 885 –890 (1994). 0733-8724 CrossRef
Yang  J. Y. et al., “All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals utilizing cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 20, (19 ), 1642 –1644 (2008). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Matsumoto  A. et al., “Operational design on high-speed semiconductor optical amplifier with assist light for application to wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 42, (3 ), 313 –323 (2006). 0018-9197 CrossRef
Contestabile  G., Presi  M., Ciaramella  E., “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.. 16, , 1775  (2004). 1041-1135 CrossRef
Hao  Q., Zeng  H., “Cascaded four-wave mixing in nonlinear Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 20, (5 ), 1 –5 (2014). 1077-260X CrossRef
Geraghty  D. F. et al., “Wavelength conversion for WDM communication systems using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.. 3, (5 ), 1146 –1155 (1997). 1077-260X CrossRef
Su  R. et al., “Proposal of interaction length for stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of nanosecond laser in optical fiber.” Opt. Laser Technol.. 57, , 1 –4 (2014). 0030-3992 CrossRef
Su  R. et al., “Numerical analysis on impact of temporal characteristics on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold for nanosecond laser in an optical fiber,” Opt. Commun.. 316, , 86 –90 (2014). 0030-4018 CrossRef
Nakanishi  T. et al., “Al2O3-SiO2 core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB,” in  32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2006 , Th4.1.2 (2006).

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