Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications

Temperature-dependent investigation of carrier transport, injection, and densities in AlGaAs-based multi-quantum-well active layers for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

[+] Author Affiliations
Andreas P. Engelhardt

University of Kassel, Computational Electronics and Photonics Group, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel, Germany

Johanna S. Kolb

Philips GmbH Photonics Aachen, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Friedhard Roemer

University of Kassel, Computational Electronics and Photonics Group, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel, Germany

Ulrich Weichmann

Philips GmbH Photonics Aachen, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Holger Moench

Philips GmbH Photonics Aachen, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Bernd Witzigmann

University of Kassel, Computational Electronics and Photonics Group, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel, Germany

Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016107 (Jan 23, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.OE.54.1.016107
History: Received October 1, 2014; Accepted December 15, 2014
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Abstract.  The electro-optical efficiency of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) strongly depends on the efficient carrier injection into the quantum wells (QWs) in the laser active region. Carrier injection degrades with increasing temperature, which limits VCSEL performance in high-power applications where self-heating imposes high-operating temperatures. In a numerical model, we investigate the transport of charge carriers in an 808-nm AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure with special attention to the temperature dependence of carrier injection into the QWs. Experimental reference data were extracted from oxide-confined, top-emitting VCSELs. The transport simulations follow a drift-diffusion-model complemented by an energy-resolved carrier-capture model. The QW gain was calculated in the screened Hartree–Fock approximation. With the combination of the gain and transport model, we explain experimental reference data for the injection efficiency and threshold current. The degradation of the injection efficiency with increasing temperature is not only due to increased thermionic escape of carriers from the QWs, but also to state filling in the QWs initiated from higher threshold carrier densities. With a full opto-electro-thermal VCSEL model, we demonstrate how changes in VCSEL properties affecting the threshold carrier density, like mirror design or optical confinement, have consequences on the thermal behavior of the injection and the VCSEL performance.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Andreas P. Engelhardt ; Johanna S. Kolb ; Friedhard Roemer ; Ulrich Weichmann ; Holger Moench, et al.
"Temperature-dependent investigation of carrier transport, injection, and densities in AlGaAs-based multi-quantum-well active layers for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016107 (Jan 23, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.54.1.016107


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