Optical Design and Engineering

Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods

[+] Author Affiliations
Mayank Bahl, Evan Heller, Mingming Jiang, Robert Scarmozzino, Daniel Herrmann

Synopsys, Inc., 400 Executive Boulevard, Suite 100, Ossining, New York 10562, United States

Gui-Rong Zhou, William Cassarly

Synopsys, Inc., 199 South Los Robles Avenue, Suite 400, Pasadena, California 91101, United States

G. Groot Gregory

Synopsys, Inc., 377 Simarano Drive, Suite 300, Marlborough, Massachusetts 01752, United States

Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045105 (Apr 21, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.OE.54.4.045105
History: Received February 2, 2015; Accepted March 30, 2015
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Abstract.  Over the last two decades, extensive research has been done to improve light-emitting diodes (LEDs) designs. Increasingly complex designs have necessitated the use of computational simulations which have provided numerous insights for improving LED performance. Depending upon the focus of the design and the scale of the problem, simulations are carried out using rigorous electromagnetic (EM) wave optics-based techniques, such as finite-difference time-domain and rigorous coupled wave analysis, or through ray optics-based techniques such as Monte Carlo ray-tracing (RT). The former are typically used for modeling nanostructures on the LED die, and the latter for modeling encapsulating structures, die placement, back-reflection, and phosphor downconversion. This paper presents the use of a mixed-level simulation approach that unifies the use of EM wave-level and ray-level tools. This approach uses rigorous EM wave-based tools to characterize the nanostructured die and generates both a bidirectional scattering distribution function and a far-field angular intensity distribution. These characteristics are then incorporated into the RT simulator to obtain the overall performance. Such a mixed-level approach allows for comprehensive modeling of the optical characteristic of LEDs, including polarization effects, and can potentially lead to a more accurate performance than that from individual modeling tools alone.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Mayank Bahl ; Gui-Rong Zhou ; Evan Heller ; William Cassarly ; Mingming Jiang, et al.
"Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods", Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045105 (Apr 21, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.54.4.045105


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