A Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor that combines the conventional complementary coding with the pulse prepump technique for high-accuracy and long-range distributed sensing is implemented and analyzed. The employment of the complementary coding provides an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensing system and an extended sensing distance, and the measurement time is also reduced compared with a BOTDA sensor using linear coding. The combination of pulse prepump technique enables the establishment of a preactivated acoustic field in each pump pulse of the complementary codeword, which ensures measurements of high spatial resolution and high frequency accuracy. The feasibility of the prepumped complementary coding is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The experiments are carried out beyond 50-km single-mode fiber, and experimental results show the capabilities of the proposed scheme to achieve 1-m spatial resolution with temperature and strain resolutions equal to and , and 2-m spatial resolution with temperature and strain resolutions equal to and , respectively. A longer sensing distance with the same spatial resolution and measurement accuracy can be achieved through increasing the code length of the prepumped complementary code.