In the charge-coupled device (CCD)-based tracking control system of fast steering mirrors (FSMs), high control bandwidth is the most effective method to enhance closed-loop performance, which, however, usually suffers a great deal from time delay induced by a low CCD sampling rate. Moreover, mechanical resonances also limit high control bandwidth. Therefore, a tentative approach to implementing a CCD-based tracking control system for an FSM with inertial sensor-based cascade feedback is proposed, which is made up of acceleration feedback, velocity feedback, and position feedback. Accelerometers and gyroscopes are all the inertial sensors, sensing vibrations induced by platforms, in turn, which can contribute to disturbance supersession. In theory, the acceleration open-loop frequency response of the FSM includes a quadratic differential, and it is very difficult to compensate a quadratic differential with a double-integral algorithm. A lag controller is used to solve this problem and accomplish acceleration closed-loop control. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop, and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the improved control mode can effectively enhance the error attenuation performance of the line of sight (LOS) for the CCD-based tracking control system.