Wide dynamic-range data-rate scaling ( range of data rates) is difficult to achieve with a single hardware architecture while maintaining excellent sensitivity and minimizing the size, weight, and power (SWaP) on the space platform. An obvious means for rate scaling is to change the system baud rate. This technique, however, is impractical in implementation due to hardware limitations, such as the need to perform clock recovery or filtering efficiently over a wide range of data rates. Many other rate scaling techniques exist that can operate with a fixed system baud rate. For example, a fixed bandwidth transmission system can change its modulation format to either maximize or minimize the spectral efficiency, which in turn leads to variations in data rate. It is also possible to use forward error correction (FEC) to take advantage of the fact that lower FEC code rates can operate error-free at lower SNRs, albeit at lower information data rates due to the increased overhead. Additionally, a transmission system can repeat a block of channel symbols to lower the data rate while maintaining a constant channel symbol rate.