An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) for the generation of a frequency-doubled or -quadrupled microwave signal with a tunable frequency multiplication technique is proposed and demonstrated. In the proposed OEO, a modulated signal is generated by a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM). The modulated signal is then divided into two parts. One part is sent to a photodetector (PD1) via an optical domain dual-loop composite cavity and then fed back to the MZM to form the OEO loop that can generate an oscillation signal with the frequency determined by the center frequency of an electrical bandpass filter used in the loop and the length difference of the dual-loop composite cavity. The other part is sent to a fiber-optic recirculating delay line (RDL) structure and then applied to another PD (PD2) for the formation of a microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter. Through using the cascade characteristics of the RDL loop in the fiber-optic RDL structure and the notch response of the MWP notch filter, a frequency-doubled or -quadrupled microwave signal is generated. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided and the results are verified by an experiment. A fundamental oscillation signal at 5.592 GHz is generated in the OEO loop, which is multiplied to generate a frequency-doubled microwave signal at 11.184 GHz or a frequency-quadrupled microwave signal at 22.368 GHz, respectively. The performance of the generated microwave signals is also investigated.