Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications

Long-distance quantum key distribution using concatenated entanglement swapping with practical resources

[+] Author Affiliations
Aeysha Khalique

National University of Sciences and Technology, School of Natural Sciences, H-12 Islamabad, Pakistan

University of Science and Technology of China, Shanghai Branch, CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai, China

University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Hefei, Anhui, China

Barry C. Sanders

University of Science and Technology of China, Shanghai Branch, CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai, China

University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Hefei, Anhui, China

University of Calgary, Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, Alberta, Canada

Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Quantum Information Science, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Opt. Eng. 56(1), 016114 (Jan 25, 2017). doi:10.1117/1.OE.56.1.016114
History: Received October 20, 2016; Accepted January 5, 2017
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Abstract.  We explain how to share photons between two distant parties using concatenated entanglement swapping and assess performance according to the two-photon visibility as the figure of merit. From this analysis, we readily see the key generation rate and the quantum bit error rate as figures of merit for this scheme applied to quantum key distribution (QKD). Our model accounts for practical limitations, including higher-order photon pair events, dark counts, detector inefficiency, and photon losses. Our analysis shows that compromises are needed among the runtimes for the experiment, the rate of producing photon pairs, and the choice of detector efficiency. From our quantitative results, we observe that concatenated entanglement swapping enables secure QKD over long distances but at key generation rates that are far too low to be useful for large separations. We find that the key generation rates are close to both the Takeoka–Guha–Wilde and the Pirandola–Laurenza–Ottaviani–Banchi bounds.

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© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Aeysha Khalique and Barry C. Sanders
"Long-distance quantum key distribution using concatenated entanglement swapping with practical resources", Opt. Eng. 56(1), 016114 (Jan 25, 2017). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.56.1.016114


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