An effective correction model is proposed to eliminate the refraction error effect caused by an optical window of a furnace in digital image correlation (DIC) deformation measurement under high-temperature environment. First, a theoretical correction model with the corresponding error correction factor is established to eliminate the refraction error induced by double-deck optical glass in DIC deformation measurement. Second, a high-temperature DIC experiment using a chromium–nickel austenite stainless steel specimen is performed to verify the effectiveness of the correction model by the correlation calculation results under two different conditions (with and without the optical glass). Finally, both the full-field and the divisional displacement results with refraction influence are corrected by the theoretical model and then compared to the displacement results extracted from the images without refraction influence. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed theoretical correction model can effectively improve the measurement accuracy of DIC method by decreasing the refraction errors from measured full-field displacements under high-temperature environment.