Active electro-optical (EO) sensing, whether known by lidar, ladar, or laser radar, is becoming much more significant as a sensing modality for scientific, military, and commercial applications. New commercial applications abound. A major economic driver in the relatively near future will probably be driverless cars; this will a huge market, and affordable active EO sensing is critical to its development. Because of the economic scale of this application, it will likely drive the development of low-cost short-range 3D active imaging. Microsoft Kinect, a lidar using structured light, is another large-volume device in the market. Of course people are familiar with police lidar to catch speeders. Moving up the scale we can see a large developing market in 3D imaging active EO sensors for both commercial and military applications. Many cities are being 3D mapped, with applications to flood control and other civic planning activities. We have even seen 3D lidar mapping used for archeology. At a closer range, 3D printing will increase the need for 3D imaging to develop the template for some 3D printed objects. Environmental applications of active EO sensing are expanding as well. You can map wind velocity, or detect chemicals like methane or other objectionable chemicals. NASA has landed an active EO sensor on Mars that zaps a rock with a short pulse laser and then measures the spectrum of the gaseous cloud generated to type the materials a rock is made from. It is likely that in the future active EO sensing will revolutionize detection and extraction of fossil fuels. At the higher end, active EO sensing is ideal for identifying objects at long range.